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中缅终于达成原油管道运输协议
China and Myanmar open long-delayed oil pipeline

来源:FT中文网    2017-04-12 18:30



        China and Myanmar have finally agreed to open a cross-border pipeline into south-east China, allowing Beijing to diversify oil supply routes and reduce its dependence on the contentious South China Sea.        中国和缅甸终于就开通一条通往中国西南部地区的跨境输油管道达成协议,使北京方面得以实现供油路线多元化,降低对有争议的南中国海(South China Sea)的依赖。
        The agreement, announced by Chinese vice-foreign minister Liu Zhenmin at the end of a state visit by Myanmar’s president Htin Kyaw, comes as China presses its southern neighbour for access to more infrastructure deals following setbacks at other projects. Work on the controversial $1.5bn Myitsone dam project — a symbol of what some see as the excesses of Chinese influence in Myanmar — has been suspended for years.        这项协议是在缅甸总统廷觉(Htin Kyaw)对中国进行国事访问结束时由中国副外长刘振民宣布的。在其他项目遭遇挫折之后,中国正催促这个南部邻国与自己达成更多基础设施协议。备受争议、规模达15亿美元的密松(Myitsone)大坝项目(有些人把该项目视为中国对缅甸影响力过大的一个标志)的工程已被搁置数年。
        State-owned news agency Xinhua said a ship began offloading immediately at Myanmar’s Kyaukpyu port to send crude oil up the pipeline.        中国国家通讯社新华社(Xinhua)称,一艘油轮随即开始在缅甸皎漂(Kyaukpyu)港口卸下原油并送入输油管道。
        The twin crude and gas pipelines on the route are key to China’s “two oceans” strategy to diversify energy supply away from the chokepoint of the Strait of Malacca and vulnerable shipping lanes through the disputed South China Sea. Once fully operational, the pipeline from Made island in Rakhine state can supply almost 6 per cent of China’s crude oil imports. The gas line is already in use.        这条线路上的原油天然气管道是中国“两洋”战略的关键。该战略的目的是实现能源供给线路多元化,不再过多依赖咽喉要道马六甲海峡和穿越有争议的南中国海的脆弱航线。一旦完全投入使用,这条始于若开邦(Rakhine)马德(Made)岛的管道可满足中国近6%的原油进口。天然气管道已投入使用。
        The opening of the long-delayed crude pipeline served to mask the two countries’ inability to reach an agreement on more substantial concessions that China was trying to promote as part of its “Belt and Road” initiative, said Du Jifeng, an expert on Southeast Asia at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.        中国社会科学院(Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)东南亚问题专家杜继锋表示:“中国想利用(一带一路)计划在海外兜售更多的基础设施和能源项目。但缅甸认为其国内已有很多这类项目,希望中国在农业和轻工制造方面投更多的资。”
        “China wants to use the initiative to sell more infrastructure and energy programmes overseas. But Myanmar considers there are already a lot of those type of projects in its territory and wants more investment in agriculture and light manufacturing.”        6年前,缅甸取消了密松大坝项目。中国出资方最近已从要求赔偿金转为争取缅方提供其他项目的优先准入作为赔偿。杜继锋说:“重启密松水坝的可能性相对较小,所以缅甸正向中国提出其他替代性项目。”他接着说,合同赔偿金“对小国而言将是一个巨大的负担”。
        Myanmar cancelled the Myitsone dam six years ago. Chinese backers have recently shifted from demanding indemnification to pushing for preferential access to other projects as compensation. “It’s relatively less possible to resume the Myitsone Dam, so Myanmar is proposing other alternative projects to China,” Mr Du said, adding that the contractual indemnification would be “a huge burden for a small country”.        这一管道项目多次被延迟,并遭到中缅两国民众的反对。该项目通往云南省昆明市一家炼油厂。当地居民曾上街示威,反对扩建该厂。
        The pipeline project has been fraught with delays and opposition from citizens in both countries. It feeds a refinery in Kunming, in southwestern China’s Yunnan province, that has been the target of street demonstrations from residents opposed to its expansion.         在缅甸,这条管道受到“抢地”(land grabs)指控的困扰。其他中国项目——包括密松水坝和由中国军方控制的公司万宝(Wanbao)经营的矿场——也引起了缅甸人的担忧,他们担心中国对受到孤立的军政府的影响力会使一些破坏环境、但对东道国没什么好处的项目得以实施。
        In Myanmar, the pipeline was dogged by accusations of land grabs. Other Chinese projects, including the Myitsone dam and mines operated by Wanbao, a company controlled by the Chinese military, have raised fears in Myanmar that China’s influence over the isolated junta has enabled environmentally damaging projects that contribute little to the host country.         上述管道和炼油厂的经营方都是中国石油天然气集团公司(CNPC)。在现已落马的能源和政法沙皇周永康领导下,这家国有石油公司曾是执行中国旨在获取海外资源的“走出去”战略的旗手。
        Both pipeline and refinery are operated by China National Petroleum Corp, or PetroChina. The state-owned oil company served as the standard-bearer for China’s “going out” strategy to secure resources overseas under now-disgraced energy and security tsar Zhou Yongkang.        不过,它还受到中石油一项战略的驱动,即在中国西南设立一处炼油基地,避免受到国有石油公司中石化(Sinopec)拥有的沿海炼油厂的钳制。中国西南是周永康的政治据点之一。
        But it was also motivated by CNPC’s strategy to build a refining base in south-west China, a political stronghold for Mr Zhou, and avoid the stranglehold on coastal refineries enjoyed by state-owned rival Sinopec.         张祺(Archie Zhang)补充报道
        Additional reporting by Archie Zhang        译者/何黎
                
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