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An Hour of Running May Add 7 Hours to Your Life

来源:纽约时报    2017-04-13 09:29:12

        Running may be the single most effective exercise to increase life expectancy, according to a new review and analysis of past research about exercise and premature death. The new study found that, compared to nonrunners, runners tended to live about three additional years, even if they run slowly or sporadically and smoke, drink or are overweight. No other form of exercise that researchers looked at showed comparable impacts on life span.        对以前的一项关于锻炼和过早死亡的研究所做的最新回顾和分析表明,在延长人均预期寿命方面,跑步或许是最有效的一种运动。新的研究发现,比起不跑步的人,跑步的人通常可以多活三年左右,即便他们跑得很慢或三天打鱼两天晒网,还吸烟或超重。研究人员评估过的其他任何运动形式,它们对寿命的影响力都没能与跑步相媲美。
        The findings come as a follow-up to a study done three years ago, in which a group of distinguished exercise scientists scrutinized data from a large trove of medical and fitness tests conducted at the Cooper Institute in Dallas. That analysis found that as little as five minutes of daily running was associated with prolonged life spans.        上述结论是三年前的一项研究的后续成果,在那项研究中,一群杰出的运动科学家仔细分析了达拉斯库珀研究所(Cooper Institute)所做大量医学和体能测试的数据。分析结果显示,即便每天只跑步五分钟,也与寿命的延长有关联。
        After that study was released, the researchers were inundated with queries from fellow scientists and the general public, says Duck-chul Lee, a professor of kinesiology at Iowa State University and co-author of the study. Some people asked if other activities, such as walking, were likely to be as beneficial as running for reducing mortality risks.        那篇论文的共同作者、艾奥瓦州立大学(Iowa State University)运动学教授李德铢(Duck-chul Lee,音)说,论文发表后,来自科学家同行和普通民众的大量问询让研究人员应接不暇。一些人问他们,在降低死亡风险方面,散步等其他运动是否和跑步有着一样的效果。
        High-mileage runners wondered if they could be doing too much, and if at some undefined number of miles or hours, running might become counterproductive and even contribute to premature mortality.        长距离跑步者想知道,他们是不是跑得太多了,当跑步里程或时长达到某个尚未明确的点之后,跑步会不会起反作用,甚至促成过早死亡。
        And a few people questioned whether running really added materially to people’s life spans. Could it be, they asked rather peevishly, that if in order to reduce your risk of dying by a year, you had to spend the equivalent of a year’s worth of time on the trails or track, producing no discernible net gain?        还有少数人怀疑,跑步是否真的能在实际意义上延长人的寿命。他们怒冲冲地问到:为了降低死亡风险,让自己多活一年,你不得不把同样长的时间花在赛道或马路上,净收益是不是微乎其微?
        So for the new study, which was published in March in Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, Lee and his colleagues set out to address those and related issues by reanalyzing data from the Cooper Institute and also examining results from a number of other large-scale recent studies looking into the associations between exercise and mortality.        于是,在这项新研究中,李德铢及其同事着手解答上述疑问以及相关问题,他们重新分析了来自库珀研究所的数据,还检验了近来其他着眼于运动与死亡之间关联的大规模研究的成果。
        Over all, this new review reinforced the findings of the earlier research, the scientists determined. Cumulatively, the data indicated that running, whatever someone’s pace or mileage, dropped a person’s risk of premature death by almost 40%, a benefit that held true even when the researchers controlled for smoking, drinking and a history of health problems such as hypertension or obesity.        科学家们认为,总的来说,这项新的回顾性研究夯实了早前的研究结论。相关数据逐渐表明,不论速度快慢、里程长短,跑步都可以让一个人过早死亡的风险下降约40%,即便在研究人员剔除吸烟、饮酒以及高血压、肥胖之类过往病史等因素后也是如此。
        Using those numbers, the scientists then determined that if every nonrunner who had been part of the reviewed studies took up the sport, there would have been 16% fewer deaths over all and 25% fewer fatal heart attacks. (One caveat: The participants in those studies were mostly white and middle class.)        借助这些数据,科学家们随后确定,他们检验的那些研究中的不跑步者如果开始跑步,总体死亡率会下降16%,致命性心脏病发作的风险会下降25%。(需要说明的是,那些研究中的受试者大多是白人和中产阶级。)
        Perhaps most interesting, the researchers calculated that, hour for hour, running statistically returns more time to people’s lives than it consumes. Figuring two hours per week of training, since that was the average reported by runners in the Cooper Institute study, the researchers estimated that a typical runner would spend less than six months actually running over the course of almost 40 years, but could expect an increase in life expectancy of 3.2 years, for a net gain of about 2.8 years.        或许最有趣的是,研究人员认为,一个小时又一个小时地统计下来,跑步让生命得以延长的时间大于它消耗的时间。据研究人员估计,以每周跑两小时计——在库珀研究所的研究中,跑步者报告的平均跑步时长就是两小时——一名普通的跑步者在40年间实际只跑了不到六个月,但其寿命可能会延长3.2年,净收益约为2.8年。
        In concrete terms, an hour of running statistically lengthens life expectancy by seven hours, the researchers report.        研究人员称,精确地说,跑步一小时可以让预期寿命延长7小时。
        Of course, these additions “are not infinite,” Lee says. Running does not make people immortal. The gains in life expectancy are capped at about three extra years, he says, however much people run.        当然了,这种延长“不是无穷尽的,”李德铢说。不论跑多长时间,他说,预期寿命延长的上限都是3年左右。
        The good news is that prolonged running does not seem to become counterproductive for longevity, he continues, according to the data he and his colleagues reviewed. Improvements in life expectancy generally plateaued at about four hours of running per week, Lee says. But they did not decline.        他还说,好消息是,他和同事们回顾的数据显示,长期跑步似乎不会对寿命起反作用。李德铢说,一般而言,每周跑到4个小时,跑步对预期寿命的增进作用就会趋于稳定,但不会下降。
        Meanwhile, other kinds of exercise also reliably benefited life expectancy, the researchers found, but not to the same degree as running. Walking, cycling and other activities, even if they required the same exertion as running, typically dropped the risk of premature death by about 12%. (To make my own biases clear, I run, but I also love cycling and walk my dogs every day.)        与此同时,研究人员发现,其他运动的确也有助于延长寿命,但效果赶不上跑步。即便花费的力气与跑步相当,散步、骑车等其他运动通常也只能让过早死亡的风险下降约12%。(需要说明我是有偏见的,我跑步,但我也喜欢骑车,每天还会遛狗。)
        Why running should be so uniquely potent against early mortality remains uncertain, Lee says. But it is likely, he says, that it combats many of the common risk factors for early death, including high blood pressure and extra body fat, especially around the middle.        李德铢说,目前尚不清楚为什么跑步在防止过早死亡方面有如此强大的效力。但他说,原因可能在于,跑步可以遏制很多导致过早死亡的常见因素,包括高血压和过多的体脂,对中年人而言尤为如此。
        It also raises aerobic fitness, he says, and high aerobic fitness is one of the best-known indicators of an individual’s long-term health.        他说,跑步还能提升有氧适能,而有氧适能较好是人长期健康的一个众所周知的标志。
        Of course, the findings in this new review are associational, meaning that they prove that people who run tend also to be people who live longer, but not that running directly causes the increases in longevity. Runners typically also lead healthy lives, Lee says, and their lifestyles may be playing an outsize role in mortality.        当然了,这项新的回顾性研究得出的是相关性结论,意思是说,其结论证明跑步的人往往寿命更长,而非跑步直接导致寿命延长。李德铢说,跑步的人通常也更健康,他们的生活方式或许极大地影响着死亡率。
        But even taking that possibility into consideration, he says, the data suggest that running could add years to our lives.        但他说,即便考虑到这种可能性,相关数据也表明,跑步可以让我们多活几年。

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